Monday, 31 October 2011

Equine Reproduction Colloquium

I recently went to the Equine Reproduction Colloquium.

Here is a link to their website...

I went last year as well and I have enjoyed both years. It is run by Aberystwyth University and this year it was at Hereford Race Course. There is a wide range of people attending, this year there were students from both Aberystwyth and Hartpury, there are also scientists from the area, vets and people that run/ work on stud farms. It is a great way of bringing people in the industry to discuss new research that may not have made it back to the breeders, and areas that need to be looked into by the scientists.

Jenny Ousey first talked about the assessment of foetal health in the pregnant mare. This was talking about ways to assess how healthy the foetus is. Then Julia Kydd talked about the formation of the equine placenta and the immune response. This was interesting as it discussed the foetus in terms of a transplant into the placenta and why the mare's immune system doesn't reject this foreign material.There were then talks into potential research to support mare and stallion practises.

Along with the different speakers and buffet lunch we also had a discussion session in the afternoon where we got together in groups and could choose the topic we wanted to discuss. I was in the group for future reproductive technologies and we discussed a range of things from embryo transfer to creating an online data base for all studs to record information on, this would then be a great source of data for the scientists.

After this there was one more speaker called Emma Tomlinson who talked about potential research to support embryo transfer practice.

One thing that did come across are the communications problems with valuable information. Scientists often do not write in terms that a stud yard manager may understand. There are communication problems between vets and scientists as to which are the best methods to use and how to use them. There are also communication problems between stud farms of valuable information as they are businesses and may not want to share their tips to other stud yards which may be their competitors.

I really enjoyed going and it's great for us students to meet some of the high flyers in the reproductive industry! If any of your are involved in equine reproduction I would recommend looking into going next year!

Love Laura

Friday, 28 October 2011

Product Review- Happy Hoof

I have been wanting to do more product reviews as I think they are useful to people but it's hard as I don't have a horse with me at university. However, I found these photos that I had taken over the summer and not used of Trooper's feed...

Trooper is given Happy Hoof for his feed so I thought I would write a review on this!

The bucket looks like a cone here for some reason but I assure you it's a normal rubber bucket! I should actually do a review on the bucket as they last Trooper years and he used to break the plastic ones within a week! He's good at picking them up in his mouth and throwing them!

OK back to the review... Trooper has been having Happy Hoof in his feed for many years now. He also has Winergy Ventilate and Biotin powder. Which I have also written reviews on ( here and here). Happy Hoof is by the company Spillers and costs around £10 for 20 kg (but we buy it from our farmer). Essentially, he is on this Happy Hoof because of his tendency to put on weight. He is definitely not fussy about what he eats but he really likes it and makes sure the bowl is licked clean. It smells nice to me as well!

This feed is aimed at horses that are prone to laminitis so is low in starch. It is approved by the Laminitis Trust. There are recommendations on the back of the bag to how much to feed your horse. Trooper has a small scoop a day. He does not really need a feed but on the livery yard where he is kept they all have breakfast in the morning and he isn't happy if he gets left out! In the winter he has two feeds a day but still the same amount so the small scoop is split into two feeds (again to keep him happy!). He also has apples and carrots in his feed.

Happy Hoof has real mint, garlic and soya oil in it. Garlic is meant to help respiration which is good for Trooper.The feed is mainly made up of chaff with a few pellets in it. It is not dry or dusty and his extra biotin powder he has mixes in well without the feed being too dry.

In my own experience with the feed it is a very good feed for horses prone to put on weight such as Trooper. It also has added biotin in the feed which is great for Trooper as he used to get very cracked hooves. As Trooper is 22 years old I feel better about his nutrition knowing he is having a small feed which is giving him the extra things he may need. I would definitely recommend the feed for anyone with a horse that puts on weight easily but still needs a feed for whatever reason, or horses prone to laminitis. I can't see myself changing Trooper's feed from Happy Hoof in the near future as he is in good health on this feed and I have never had any problems from it.

Love Laura

Thursday, 27 October 2011

Zebra For Sale!

Just a quick post because on the Your Horse magazine facebook page they posted a link to this earlier. On one of the horse sales website Horse Deals there is a zebra for sale! Click here to see it!

It does say sale to a special experienced home only which is good because I wouldn't know where to start if I bought a zebra! I would love to buy it if I could though!!

Love Laura

Wednesday, 26 October 2011

Edited Photos and Trooper

I've just got a new app on my phone (kindly suggested to me by my boyfriend) and I have edited some photos of Trooper so here they are!

These are all photos I already had on my phone so don't worry, it's not snowing in Macclesfield yet (touch wood). And if you were wondering, the app is called Instagram and was free.

Also I've not seen Trooper for a few months due to being at uni but my Mum says he is fine. He isn't lame in walk which is good but she hasn't trotted him as she didn't want to put unnecessary strain on his tendon. This is the first winter we wont have had him clipped as he can't be ridden and she says he is getting fluffy! His weigh is OK, he is eating one and a half hay nets over night and then is in the field for a few hours in the day so hopefully this is just maintaining him at the same weight without work.

Love Laura

Monday, 24 October 2011

Nutritional Disorders

White muscle disease is also called nutritional myodegeneration. It happens in foals of mares grazed on selenium or vitamin E deficient pasture. It causes skeletal and cardiac problems. Selenium helps to prevent muscle damage. It can be seen in cardiac muscle, this is often acute and happens quickly. The foal is often weak and may die due to heart failure and suffer respiratory stress. When it is seen in skeletal muscle it is more chronic, it causes the foal to be weak and it may have problems suckling.  This type can be reversed, as long as it is not too severe. Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidise which is an antioxidant and prevents muscle damage, which is why there are problems when it is not there. Muscle fibres are fragmented, mineralisation happens and there is inflammation of the surrounding fat. Selenium can also be toxic.

Developmental Orthopaedic Disorders (DODs) ecompass many different disorders such as physitis, subchondral bone cysts, angular limb deformities, wobble syndrome. Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is when there is abnormal cartilage formation. There are many theories to the cause of these such as genetic, trauma, nutritional, or all of these. If it was nutrition then it could be due to high carbohydrate which is associated with insulin  secretion. Low exercise, excess or deficiencies of proteins may also have an effect along with copper deficiency in the uterus and in growing youngsters and Ca:P inbalance. To treat or manage this you should restrict exercise to minimise damage, reduce carbohydrate intake, copper supplements, intra-articular steroids and arthoscopic surgery, this can be used to remove the damaged fragments of bone, and it is debrided.

Exertional Rhabdomolysis has a number of clinical signs- stiffness, changes in gait, pain in gluteals, hard swollen muscles, sweating, recumbancy, increased respiratory rate and myoglobinurea.This could be due to electrolyte deficiency or selenium or vit E deficiency or a hormonal disturbance.  There is muscle fibre damage from increased enzyme activity and the leakage of enzymes and myoglobin into peripheral circulation. It is treated by giving pain relief and muscle relaxants, the Na+ and K+ blood concentrations should be monitored. Selenium and Vit E should be supplemented. They may also be given fluid therapy. The diet should be managed by reducing the starch/ sugar carbohydrate in the diet. You can give them electrolytes. Ensure the vitamins and minerals are correctly balanced. And avoid lush fast growing pasture.

These disorders show the importance of correct feeding in the equine!

Love Laura

Sunday, 23 October 2011

My Little Pony

I'm on a break from writing essays which has been going on for far too long now but I was on the Truffle Shuffle website which has lots of good clothes with cartoons etc. on! I saw these and thought they would be good on my blog! I have got a My Little Pony T-shirt already but it is slightly different to this one!

The T shirt is £24.99 and the hoodie is £34.99. And they can be purchased here!

Also please remember, you can follow my blog in a number of ways over on the side bar at the right! I also have a facebook and twitter page where I post updates about new blog posts and general chit-chat! :-)

Love Laura

Saturday, 22 October 2011


I have just been looking at different horse books on the internet and here are some of the ones that I thought looked interesting and I might get one or two for Christmas!

The first book can be seen below and is called Photographing and Videoing Horses Explained. It can be bought here for around £16.00. It says it teaches the basics of digital and film photography and how to avoid 25 common problems. It also includes sections on how to use photoshop to edit your photos.

The next book is one written by the founder of The Donkey Sanctuary and is called The Complete Book Of The Donkey. This interests me due to my new love of donkeys! It can be bought here for £20.50. 

The next book is Sixty Years Of Royal Welsh Champions. This especially interests me after researching Trooper's family tree and finding he had some "famous" ancestors! Click here for the post! The book is for sale for £35.00 and can be bought here! It is a summary of the Royal Welsh Show with details of who won each of the four categories in the Welsh cob and pony classes. There are photos for each champion.

The final book is one that caught my eye as I am going to watch the Spanish Riding School in November and no doubt I will want to know more about this type of classical riding. This is called The Art Of Riding and can be purchased here for £39.95. The book goes into detail into a number of dressage movements.

(None of these images belong to me).

So there are a few ideas if you are looking for a new book or to add to your Christmas list!

Love Laura

Friday, 21 October 2011

Feeding Growing Horses

Horses grow up to around 7 years old. Their growth plates don’t fuse until they are 7 in some cases. The fetlock joints fuse early but the vertebrates in the back can take longer to fuse. Training youngsters may help bones as they go through a modelling and remodelling process of the soft bone. This could also be a disadvantage to the muscle as it wont have formed yet as the bone forms before the muscle. Turning out young horses is a good idea as they have light exercise.

(this image does not belong to me)

Rapid growth is undesirable, and it wont effect the ultimate height the horse ends up at. The foal should be adapted to hard feed before weaning by introducing creep feeds. If the change onto hard feed is abrupt then the horses average daily gain is usually lower. This causes the foal to have to catch up on growth and it can risk muscular skeletal problems. A fibre based diet is better and a bit of creep feed can be added to this. A probiotic may also be beneficial as this helps the foals hind gut digestion from the microbes, especially as these need to be adapted to the feed to be able to digest it. 

Through the first winter a steady consistent growth is wanted. The appetite is around 2.5-3.5% of daily body weight. Rough pasture and good quality hay may be harder to come by in the winter so adding a compound feed may be necessary. This should be split into at least two meals. A typical compound giving to a foal contains no maize, oats and barley as they are deficient in amino acids and these are important for growth. Wheat is a good feed to be given if it is micronised. There is often soya in these feeds as this has a lot of high quality protein. Molasses is also in them as this contains a pre-caecally digested CHO. Calcium and phosphorus are also included in the correct ratios. For the yearlings first summer it is best to turn it out on good quality pasture. The compound feed may then be stopped. This will help their gut also.

Protein is important in their diet, for the bones. If they are deficient in crude protein they will have a reduced bone circumference and a reduced bone density. This will put more stress on the bone especially if they are ridden a lot or on hard ground.

Calcium and phosphorus is required at a ratio of 1.7:1. This helps the skeleton and gives it rigidity and strength. Deficiency of these can cause rickets in youngsters, bone fractures, developmental orthopaedic disorders, delayed plate closure and osteochondrosis dessicans which are small lesions where hardening of the bone has failed. Calcium can also be deposited in places such as the head if there is too much causing lumps.

Vitamin D is also important in youngsters. It helps to control calcium levels. A deficiency can cause osteomalacia (rickets) and an increased risk of fractures

Feeding youngsters is different to feeding horses at maintenance as it is very important they are receiving the correct levels of nutrients to help them grow correctly and avoid problems. 

Love Laura

Thursday, 20 October 2011

Feeding Foals

The normal feeding behaviour of a foal is to stand and suckle within 2-3 hours or much sooner. Any longer there will be a problem with absorbing colostrum. They should suckle frequently, in the first 2 weeks, 7- 8 times and hour. As they get older they suckle less as they are more coordinated and efficient at suckling at the times when they do.

Total intake up to day 2 is 10-15% of  body weigh a day, this is a massive drain on the mare. After day 2 this goes up to 25% of body weight a day.  At 3 months they drink 18 litres a day. The weight gain is 1-2 kg/day and they should be weighed accurately, this may seem like a lot but when you think that they may have to reach a weight of 500 kg then they need to put on a lot of weight.

Colostrum is the milk produced in the first 12- 15 hours after birth, you don’t want the foal to miss this. It has antibodies and is a different composition to mature milk. There is increased protein, increased white blood cells, increased Ca content,  and increased Vit A, but it has a lower concentration of lactose than mature milk. If the foal doesn't get this they are at risk from illness, septicaemia and scouring. The immunoglobulin molecules are only absorbed for a short time in foal intestine. They need a protein carrier which is not produced after this time. So they need it before 12 hours.

Milk composition changes rapidly in the first few days then stabilises. The values vary in horses and literature. The foals don’t have the capacity to digest fibre as the microbes that do this haven't populated their gut yet, so they shouldn’t be weaned too early. Coprophagy is eating poo, this gives them microbes to populate the hind gut.

After 3-4 weeks they may require extra nutritional support. They should be kept out on grass but can be also given a creep feed. This will help the foal to mature and stop using as much of the mares resources. It adapts the gut to hard feed so that they are more likely to be ok when they are weaned.

 Weaning is usually around 3- 6 months, thoroughbred are weaned earlier. Nutrition of the mare should be taken into account and if she is looking in poor condition the foal may need to be weaned earlier. 5 months is optimal for weaning, an added probiotic may also be beneficial to the gut.

Tomorrow I will be uploading a post on feeding growing horses. 

Love Laura

Sunday, 16 October 2011

Horse Birthday Cards!

Above is an image of a birthday card I received which I thought you all might like!

The website is

They have lots of cards on there that are priced at £1.80 and are great for any horsey friends you have!

They have other products as well such as coasters and calenders with horses, dogs, cats etc.

So go and have a look, they are all really funny and sweet!

(The images in this post do not belong to me!)

Love Laura

Friday, 14 October 2011

Horse Racing- Whip Ban?- Update

After the new regulations came into play a few days ago there has already been some problems with the new whip regulations. For the link to my original post on the new whip regulations Click here!

Richard Hughes has now given up his licence after already receiving two bans. Below is a link to the news story. He says he is not a rider that uses the whip much. Of the 7 times they are allowed to use the whip, only 5 are allowed to be used in the last furlong or from the final obstacle.

BBC News link!

He argues that the new regulations will make people use the whip more before the furlong pole and then they have 5 whips left.

I think this would only be on very rare occasions and all in all I think it would reduce the use of the whip. He was obviously using it more than the regulations which is why they got the ban. I am sure we are going to see a lot more jockeys getting annoyed with the new regulations when they get bans. They are going to blame the new rules rather than the fact they use the whip too much.

I have only been to the races once and I really enjoyed it, I watched a youngster race though and from what I can remember they did not use the whip much. However, these rules are for the better of the sport, if less people are put off by thinking it is cruel then they will get more spectators and viewers. Therefore, once the rules have become "the norm" I think that it will be an improvement to the sport.

Love Laura

Wednesday, 12 October 2011

Donkey Digestion

I am just doing some of my wider reading for my course and I came across a paper comparing the differences between different types of equids and how they digest food. The paper was by Cuddeford et al (1995) and was called Digestibility and gastro-intestinal transit tie of diets containing different proportions of alfalfa and oat straw given to Thorougbreds Shetland ponies, Highland ponies and donkeys.

What interested me the most about this paper was that it included donkeys. While spending two weeks working with donkeys in the summer I saw how different they were to horses regarding their diet. They were in the field during the day but over night they were in their barns with straw to eat. They also put weight on very differently to horses as it was collecting in patches and not evenly spread around the body. I was told tat they have evolved differently than horses as they are from hot countries where there is not much grass so eat more roughage that is not as full of nutrients as grass.

In the paper above, they found that all animals digested the low fibre diets better than the high fibre diets. This is probably because in a high fibre diet there is more cellulose from the plant cell walls and this is difficult to break down. It was also found that donkeys digested the fibre more effectively than other equids.The transit time it took from the food entering the mouth to leaving as faeces was also longer for donkeys. As they are retaining the food for longer it will give them more chance to digest the food. The transit time was also longer for the low fibre diet than the high fibre diet in all equids.

The donkeys were also found to have the lowest water intake followed by Shetlands. Both of these had significantly lower intakes than the Thoroughbreds and Highland ponies.

Where the food intake is limited, the donkey would have the advantage as it can can get more of the nutrients out of what it eats. However, where there are unlimited food supplies, the pony or horse can compensate for this by consuming and processing more food as they do not retain the food as long.

Just a quick little post I thought you might find interesting!

Love Laura

Tuesday, 11 October 2011

The Lovely Blog Award

If you follow a lot of horse blogs you will have seen "The Lovely Blog Award" that is currently going around. I wanted to write a post on some of my favourite blogs I follow anyway so I thought this would be a good opportunity. I was given the award from Adventures with Shyloh and I was happy as being a newbie it is the first time I have been involved with one of these!

I have to pass it on to 15 other blogs. I have seen that some of the people I have given the award to have already won it so I am just doing this to share with people my favourite blogs so you can have a look! In no particular order...

And I also have to say 7 things about myself...
1. I have enjoyed writing my blogs more than I ever thought I would!
2. I have a dog called Rio.
3. I get bored very easily.
4. I wake up early and go to bed early.
5. I love pasta!
6. I want to work as an equine nutritionist.
7. I love giving horses haircuts! 

(Additional Information!) Ooo I forgot this blog Haute2Trot which I like too, so that's 16 for you to have a look at!

Love Laura

Monday, 10 October 2011

Horse Racing- Whip Ban?

Today new whip rules are coming into play for jockeys after there were a lot of complaints after the Grand National this year. The new rules are that the jockey is allowed eight strokes of the whip jumping or seven whilst on the flat.

The link to the story on the BBC news is below.

BBC news link

They say the reason the whip has not been banned completely is that they need it for safety when coming up to a jump a high speed to make sure the horse doesn't stop. They also need it to keep the horse balanced in the gallop...

I can see why they may need to give them a tap before the jump but they usually use the whip when they are coming to the end of the race, repeatedly hitting the horse that is already exhausted. I also can't see how this would help to balance the horse. They're hardly dressage riders giving them a tickle with the whip on their hindquarters! I think it is the way they are using the whip which is a large problem.

The best part of the new regulations is that they will face longer bans and they may be stripped of their prize money. This is a good idea as hopefully they will get out of the habit of hitting the horses coming up to the finish line if they may lose the winning money anyway! If they are banned they may also get fined. As the racing industry is so money driven I think using fines and taking away prize money is one of the best ways to reduce the amount of whipping.

This is a step in the right direction and we will have to wait and see the effects these new regulations will have.

Love Laura

Saturday, 8 October 2011


On channel 4 a few weeks ago there was an episode of "Inside Nature's Giants" that looked at a dissection of a race horse. If you missed it you can watch it on 4OD here! It was a very interesting program and everyone was talking about it at the farm the next day!

One of the things they talked about in the program was the gait of galloping and how horses have raced for many years. When artists first started painting horses in gallop they could not tell what the horse's legs were doing. They thought that the horses had all 4 legs off the floor at the same time (which is true) but they painted them with the legs stretched out. This can be seen on the images below.

Painting from the Epsom Derby 1821 by Theodore Gericault

Painting of a Derby by Anand Swaroop Machiraju

The video below is from YouTube and is a slow motion video of a horse galloping. From this it can be seen that the horse does have all 4 legs off the floor at one time but they are all tucked up underneath it.

The gallop is a four-time pace like the walk as all of the legs are moving at different times. The trot is a two-time pace and the canter is three-time.

(None of the images or videos used in this post belong to me!)

Love Laura

Friday, 7 October 2011

Horse Shoes For You!

There are always lots of horsey themes clothes and accessories in high-street shops. Here are a selection of horsey themed shoes that can be worn when you are not down on the yard!

Below are the Tan "Simone" loafers by Red Herring at Debenhams. They are now £24.00 reduced from £30.00. The have a horse bit running across the top and fringing on the toes. They also have a cushioned inner sole. Click here for the link!

Below is another pair of shoes also from Debenhams. These are the black "huckle" horse bit detail loafers. They are £28 and are by Henry Holland. Click here for the link!

"Chelsea boots" are in fashion at the moment and to anyone who knows horses they are just jodhpur boots! This pair is from Kurt Geiger and are £75.00 reduced from £110.00. Click here for the link! But if you already have a pair that are in good condition clean them up and you will be on trend!

And I couldn't do this post without adding my favourite boots, the Dubarry boots!! They are expensive at £299.00 but they will last for ages if you look after them well. They are definitely smart enough to wear during the day in the bad weather and are a good smart alternative to wellies! They come in different colours and there are also variations of the classic Galway style which can be seen here. Click here for the link!

(All of the images used in this post do not belong to me).

Hope you enjoyed this post! Please follow my blog if you are not already a follower!

Love Laura

Thursday, 6 October 2011

Platelet-Rich Plasma Tendon Injection

I am now back at university leaving my mum to deal with Trooper's injured tendon. On Tuesday he had the platelet rich plasma (PRP). I would have liked to be there to see what was done but I am also glad I wasn't as I am very squeamish, especially with needles! Here is some information about what was done.

The treatment was able to be carried out in Trooper's own stable. This was good as Trooper is not good at travelling and we would have risked him making the injury worse. The pros and cons have to be balances as carrying the treatment out in the stable increases the risk of infection as the do the injection right into the tendon. The bedding was all removed from his stable and it was cleaned with disinfectant. After the treatment it was also bandaged.

PRP is quite a new treatment in horses but the results so far seem to be very promising.

They took a blood sample from him which was then filtered to remove the plasma. I was wondering how this was done before the visit as the only method I have come into contact with for separating blood is using centrifuge machines. The blood was run through filters, I am not sure on the exact details of this though.

The plasma that had been removed was then injected into the tendon sheath at the site where it was injured. This works because in the plasma it is rich with platelets which is the part in the blood which helps the injury to heal. This is useful to use, especially in the lower leg as equines have a poor blood supply and this will give them the extra boost they need to help it heal.

He has been reduced from 2 bute a day now down to 1. Although for 2 days after the treatment he had 2 bute again. When I last saw him (23/9/11) he was lame in walk on 2 bute . He is now sound in walk on 1 bute and the vet said in trot he is 3/10 lame so the lameness is definitely improving.

My mum is still hosing his leg for 20 minutes twice a day to help with the inflammation. He is also wearing bandages over night. We have bought him some boot bandages which will be easier to use but they are neoprene and we are going to wait until the weather is cooler before we use them as they may make his legs sweat. He is being turned out in the field for around 6 hours a day to try and prevent him from getting stiff.

He has also been having ultrasound treatment carried out by the veterinary physiotherapist which has been helping with the swelling.

He will be having an ultrasound scan in a week or two (I can't remember) to see how the healing is going. I am going home in just over 6 weeks so hopefully I will notice a big improvement from the last time I saw him.

Love Laura

Sunday, 2 October 2011

Deficiency and Excess of Minerals

Below is a table showing the main minerals involved with feeding horses and points on what happens if they are in excess or deficiency.

Other points
Ca: P
(Calcium: Phosphorus)
Related to vitamin D. Rickets, osteomalacia, DOD, growth plates, hypocaleamic, OCDs
Readily excreted but may cause osteoblasts
1.7: 1 ratio. Needed for rigid teeth and skeleton,  nerves and muscles. 99% Ca and 80% P is stored in the blood for ATP. Primary hyperparathyroidism- glands secrete parathormone which controls calcium. Secondary phyperparathyroidism- feeding too much.
Unusual in horses, seen in cows after giving birth. Hypomagnesia causes sweating, muscle tremors, convulsions and they need Mg injection
Rare- may affect absorption of nutrients
Blood and muscle from chlorophyll forms enzymes involved with fat and CHO.  Muscle contraction, skeleton. In linseed, alfa A and bran.
Short term- electrolyte loss, overcome easily. Long term can cause diarrhoea and paralysis
Rare- easily excreted. Quarter horses- hyperkalaemia periodic paralysis (HPP), bulky muscles.
Regulates acid base balance. Osmotic pressure. Nerve and muscle function, CHO metabolism
Short term- electrolyte loss= thumps, dehydration, loss of appetite,  muscle tremors, atoxic gait. Poor use of protein and energy. Weight loss, hyponitreamia
Rare- increased drinking
1:1 with Cl. Stored in blood and extracellular fluid. Regulates osmotic pressure. Acid/ base balance across membrane. Absorption of sugars and AA. Requires ATP.
Unlikely, alkalosis. Alkali blood. Reduces growth rate
Excreted. Tissue odema (swelling), muscle weakness
Required for digestion. Used in RBCs for Co2 balance. Most cereals are deficient
Weakness of hooves, skin and hair growth poor. White muscle disease. Hoof has tubules
Sulphar converted to hydrogen sulphide, colic, diarrhoea, convulsions
Essecntial in many molecules. It is in grass; biotin, thiamine, cystine,  methionine,  keratin, insulin and oxidation of fat

The microminerals are smaller but can still have large effects, notes on these can be seen in the table below.

Other points
Cu (Copper) and Mo (Molybdenum)
Anaemia, activity of immune cells, joint disease, parturition haemorrhage
Horses aren’t susceptible as it is stored in liver
Cu and Mo antagonise each other in blood plasma and compete for binding sites. Mo is in enzymes. Cu is in haemoglobin,  hair, cartilage, stored in liver, immune system and involved in clotting
Zn (Zinc)
Depressed appetite, slow growth rate, skin lesions and parakertosis
Rare unless close to industrial sourve, anaemia, joint swelling, breaking skin around hooves
Every tissue. Cofacter in more than 200 enzymes. Bone formation, skin growth. CHO metabolism, energy and protein synthesis. CO2 transport and hoof growth
Mn (Manganese)
Enlarged hocks,  flexural deformities,  ballerina foals. Reabsorption of the foetus,  death at parturition. Irregular cycles
Well tolerated
Co factor for enzymes, important in bones as ground substance
Fe (Iron)
Anaemia- usually due to bleeding or worms perforating the gut wall
Very toxic, causes Cu or M deficiency as the compete for the same binding sites. Hapatitis, increase in WBC , lethargy and death
High in most feeds except milk, foals have a store in the liver and spleen. 90% of haemoglobin. In bone marrow. Recycled in the body when the cell dies, also activates some enzymes.
Fl (Florine)
Rare- government put it in water
Industrial contamination, soft weak bones, exposed pulp cavities, roman nose
Required in crysaline form in teeth and bones. Stimulates osteoblast production
I (Iodine)
Hypothyroidin- Goitre. Enlarged thyroid gland, ballerina foals,>
Hyperthyroidin- Goitre
Respiratory problems,  soft bones, carpas <valgas/varus
Used in thyoid gland for producing thyroid hormones. Controls metabolism of bone growth and nerve development. Sea weed
Se (Selenium)
Pale, weak, poor racing performance, susceptible to infection
Highly toxic, loss of appetite, hair, lameness, bone lesion, twisted legs in foals and death
Vital component of glutathione peroxidise hormone (antioxidant) protects mitochondria, sperm, neurotransmitter.

Hope this summary was helpful!

Love Laura
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