Sunday, 2 October 2011

Deficiency and Excess of Minerals

Below is a table showing the main minerals involved with feeding horses and points on what happens if they are in excess or deficiency.

Other points
Ca: P
(Calcium: Phosphorus)
Related to vitamin D. Rickets, osteomalacia, DOD, growth plates, hypocaleamic, OCDs
Readily excreted but may cause osteoblasts
1.7: 1 ratio. Needed for rigid teeth and skeleton,  nerves and muscles. 99% Ca and 80% P is stored in the blood for ATP. Primary hyperparathyroidism- glands secrete parathormone which controls calcium. Secondary phyperparathyroidism- feeding too much.
Unusual in horses, seen in cows after giving birth. Hypomagnesia causes sweating, muscle tremors, convulsions and they need Mg injection
Rare- may affect absorption of nutrients
Blood and muscle from chlorophyll forms enzymes involved with fat and CHO.  Muscle contraction, skeleton. In linseed, alfa A and bran.
Short term- electrolyte loss, overcome easily. Long term can cause diarrhoea and paralysis
Rare- easily excreted. Quarter horses- hyperkalaemia periodic paralysis (HPP), bulky muscles.
Regulates acid base balance. Osmotic pressure. Nerve and muscle function, CHO metabolism
Short term- electrolyte loss= thumps, dehydration, loss of appetite,  muscle tremors, atoxic gait. Poor use of protein and energy. Weight loss, hyponitreamia
Rare- increased drinking
1:1 with Cl. Stored in blood and extracellular fluid. Regulates osmotic pressure. Acid/ base balance across membrane. Absorption of sugars and AA. Requires ATP.
Unlikely, alkalosis. Alkali blood. Reduces growth rate
Excreted. Tissue odema (swelling), muscle weakness
Required for digestion. Used in RBCs for Co2 balance. Most cereals are deficient
Weakness of hooves, skin and hair growth poor. White muscle disease. Hoof has tubules
Sulphar converted to hydrogen sulphide, colic, diarrhoea, convulsions
Essecntial in many molecules. It is in grass; biotin, thiamine, cystine,  methionine,  keratin, insulin and oxidation of fat

The microminerals are smaller but can still have large effects, notes on these can be seen in the table below.

Other points
Cu (Copper) and Mo (Molybdenum)
Anaemia, activity of immune cells, joint disease, parturition haemorrhage
Horses aren’t susceptible as it is stored in liver
Cu and Mo antagonise each other in blood plasma and compete for binding sites. Mo is in enzymes. Cu is in haemoglobin,  hair, cartilage, stored in liver, immune system and involved in clotting
Zn (Zinc)
Depressed appetite, slow growth rate, skin lesions and parakertosis
Rare unless close to industrial sourve, anaemia, joint swelling, breaking skin around hooves
Every tissue. Cofacter in more than 200 enzymes. Bone formation, skin growth. CHO metabolism, energy and protein synthesis. CO2 transport and hoof growth
Mn (Manganese)
Enlarged hocks,  flexural deformities,  ballerina foals. Reabsorption of the foetus,  death at parturition. Irregular cycles
Well tolerated
Co factor for enzymes, important in bones as ground substance
Fe (Iron)
Anaemia- usually due to bleeding or worms perforating the gut wall
Very toxic, causes Cu or M deficiency as the compete for the same binding sites. Hapatitis, increase in WBC , lethargy and death
High in most feeds except milk, foals have a store in the liver and spleen. 90% of haemoglobin. In bone marrow. Recycled in the body when the cell dies, also activates some enzymes.
Fl (Florine)
Rare- government put it in water
Industrial contamination, soft weak bones, exposed pulp cavities, roman nose
Required in crysaline form in teeth and bones. Stimulates osteoblast production
I (Iodine)
Hypothyroidin- Goitre. Enlarged thyroid gland, ballerina foals,>
Hyperthyroidin- Goitre
Respiratory problems,  soft bones, carpas <valgas/varus
Used in thyoid gland for producing thyroid hormones. Controls metabolism of bone growth and nerve development. Sea weed
Se (Selenium)
Pale, weak, poor racing performance, susceptible to infection
Highly toxic, loss of appetite, hair, lameness, bone lesion, twisted legs in foals and death
Vital component of glutathione peroxidise hormone (antioxidant) protects mitochondria, sperm, neurotransmitter.

Hope this summary was helpful!

Love Laura

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